Circumcision of the Heart (Parshat Eikev)


The Torah in Deuteronomy 30:1-10 discusses the fate of the Israelites in the messianic era. In particular verse 6 states that Hashem will “circumcise the hearts” of the Israelites at that time. By contrast, Moses (ibid. 10:16) commands the Israelites to “Circumcise their heart and not be stiff-necked.” This article will discuss the context of the messianic era and explain the difference between these two verses (ibid. 30:6 and 10:16).

In addition this article will analyze the development of the evil inclination over time from the perspective of the divine and man’s involvement in this plan. 

Literal Meaning – פשט

The verses of Deuteronomy 30:1-10 predict an idyllic life for the Israelites after all of the blessings and misfortunes have occurred. Specifically the first verse states (ibid. 30:1), “It will be that when all these things have come upon you – the blessing and the curse.” Then these events will occur:    

  • Returning to service of Hashem (ibid. 2).
  • Returning of exiles to Israel (ibid. 3-5).
  • Circumcision of the heart (ibid. 6).
  • Abundant material blessings (ibid. 9).

This article will discuss verse 6 in detail. This verse states, “Hashem will circumcise your heart and the heart of your offspring, to love Hashem, with all your heart and soul that you may live.”  Obviously the verse cannot be understood literally and therefore the prominent Aramaic translations render the expression “circumcision of the heart” as follows:

Onkelos – “Hashem will remove the foolishness of your heart.”

Yonatan ben Uziel – “Hashem will remove the foolishness of your heart because Hashem will neutralize the evil impulse (i.e. animal soul) and empower the good impulse (i.e. divine soul) that will motivate you to love Hashem … to live forever.”

By contrast, Moses advises his generation to circumcise their hearts (ibid. 10:16), “You shall circumcise your heart and no longer stiffen your neck.” Nachmanides interprets the latter verse as a warning to avoid idolatry. Although both verses mention circumcision of the heart, the following table shows the difference between these verses.

FactorsDeuteronomy 10:16Deuteronomy 30:6
CircumciserIsraelites themselvesHashem
MessageAvoid sin (e.g. idolatry)Love of Hashem

In the earlier verse Moses exhorts his and the following generations to work on themselves to refrain from sin. By contrast the latter verse indicates that Hashem in the future will transform human nature to instinctually love Hashem and perform his mitzvoth. 

Exegesis – דרש 

Historical Development

This section will analyze the development of the evil inclination through the following phases to understand the divine plan for mankind:

  • Creation of man.
  • After the sin of Adam and Eve.
  • Giving of the Torah.
  • Messianic era.

Creation of Man

In the formation of man, the Torah (Genesis 2:7) writes, “Hashem formed man from the dust of the earth (i.e. physical side) and He (divine) blew into his nostrils a soul of life (i.e. spiritual side).” Genesis Rabbah 14:4 notes that the word “formed” is written in Hebrew with a double letter yud י (i.e. וייצר) indicating that Hashem formed Adam with both good and evil inclinations. In fact this is the only time in scripture that this word “formed” is spelled with the double letter yud. By contrast, when describing the formation of animals the Torah writes (ibid. 2:19), “Hashem formed out of the earth every beast of the field and every bird of the sky.” Here the Torah writes the word “formed” with a single yud (i.e. ויצר) indicating a single track mind for animals (i.e. primarily physical). In addition this verse does not mention that Hashem blew into the animals a soul of life.

By contrast, in the Talmud Berachot 61a, Rabbi Nachman son of Isaac objects to this derivation and contends that animals also have two natures, a good side subservient to man and wild nature vicious to man. (The Midrash would agree that animals possess a dual nature but cannot serve Hashem as man does.) Rather he interprets the word “formed” (יצר) in a dual sense, namely inclination and creator both spelled (יצר) and coins the following aphorism, “Woe upon me from my Creator (if I succumb to temptation) and woe to me from my evil inclination (which constantly pesters me to sin).” In any event both opinions recognize the duality of mankind whether in nature (Midrash) or responsibility (Talmud).

After the sin

At creation, Adam possessed a latent evil inclination but was not drawn to sin. However when Adam eat from the Tree of Knowledge, the evil inclination was aroused and empowered as the verse says (ibid. 3:7), “Then the eyes of both of them were opened and they realized that they were naked” (i.e. loss of innocence). The verse does not say that Adam and Eve saw that they were naked. Rather they knew that they were naked in the biblical sense of knew (i.e. intimate relations based on ibid. 4:1). As Maimonides explains (Guide for the Perplexed 1.2), Adam and Eve were not blind before eating from the Tree of Knowledge because the verses state (ibid. 2:19), “Hashem brought the animals to Adam to see what he would call each one.” and (ibid 3:6), “Eve saw that the tree was good for eating.” Rather they acquired a direct knowledge of good and evil from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil (ibid. 2:9). Maimonides notes that the Torah does not describe this tree as one of truth and falsehood rather one of good and evil, meaning that they now desired physical pleasures whether permitted or forbidden. The Zohar 1:36b remarks that Hashem withdrew his spiritual radiance from mankind meaning that their “loss of innocence” was spiritual in addition to the psychological impact of sin.          

Over time, the evil inclination became an overpowering force as the verse says (Genesis 6:5), “Hashem saw that the wickedness of man was great upon the earth and that thoughts of his heart produced by the (evil) inclination were always evil.” This evil reached a point that (so to speak) Hashem regretted creating man, (ibid 6:6), “Hashem reconsidered having made man.” In a similar vein, the Talmud comments (Sukkoth 52b) that Hashem regretted creating the evil inclination because it became too powerful. Certainly this regret is a figure of speech because Hashem knows the future (i.e. omniscient) and in addition Hashem is all powerful (i.e. omnipotent) and can remove the evil inclination at any time. This regret may be interpreted, as that in effect, man thwarted Hashem’s original plan for the evil inclination by eating from the Tree of Knowledge.

However it is the will of Hashem that man must return to Hashem on his own to merit this “circumcision of the heart”, as indicated by the verses in Deuteronomy 30:1-6. Furthermore, Hashem operates according to the principle of measure for measure, in a corrective but not vindictive sense. Since it was man that thwarted Hashem’s plan by eating from the Tree of Knowledge and thereby amplifying the power of the evil inclination, it is behooving upon man to control the evil inclination and return to Hashem. In this manner the Talmud comments on the messianic era (Sanhedrin 98a), “If the Israelites are worthy then Hashem will hasten the messianic era and in turn this circumcision. If they are not worthy then the redemption will come in its appointed time.”

Giving of the Torah

The idea of a national “circumcision of the heart” appears to be without parallel in human history, and therefore difficult to comprehend. However Song of Songs Rabbah 1:15 (on Song of Songs 1:2) indicates that Hashem performed this circumcision on the Israelites during the revelation at Sinai as the verse states (ibid.), “Let Hashem kiss me with His kisses”, meaning communicate your innermost wisdom as at Sinai.  However when the Israelites could not withstand the intensity of the revelation and asked for Moses to be their intermediary with Hashem, the evil inclination returned to the people. The following verses, which are placed in the Torah after the Ten Commandments, indicate the request for Moses as an intermediary:

Exodus 20:16 – “They (the Israelites) said to Moses: You speak to us and we shall hear; let not Hashem speak to us lest we die.” 

Deuteronomy 5:22 – “If we continue to hear the voice of Hashem … we will die.”

Deuteronomy 5:24 – “You (Moses) should approach and hear whatever Hashem will say and you should speak to us whatever Hashem will speak to you.”

In effect, Hashem treated the Israelites according to the divine principle of measure for measure (i.e. reciprocity). The Israelites rejected a continued, direct revelation from Hashem and in turn, Hashem allowed the barrier of the evil inclination to cloud the relationship between the Israelites and Hashem.  


Although the written Torah does not specify the era of these blessings, the Talmud (Megillah 29a) understands that these events refer to the messianic era. Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai says, “For wherever the Israelites were exiled the Shechinah is with them (e.g. Egypt and Babylon). Also at the time when they are destined to be redeemed, the Shechinah will be with them as the verse (ibid. 30:3) says: Hashem will return with you returning exiles.”

Maimonides (Laws of Kings 11:1) similarly understands that these verses refer to the messianic era, “In the future, the Messianic king will arise and renew the Davidic dynasty, restoring it to its initial sovereignty. He will build the Temple and gather the dispersed of Israel. Anyone who does not believe in him or does not await his coming denies not only the statements of the other prophets, but those of the Torah (Deuteronomy 30:3-5): Hashem will bring back your captivity and have mercy upon you. He will again gather you from among the nations… Even if your Diaspora is at the ends of the heavens, Hashem will gather you up from there… and bring you to the land (of Israel).”

Nachmanides (on Deuteronomy 30:6) similarly connects these verses to the messianic era when Hashem will neutralize the “evil impulse” as man will return to the state of Adam prior to eating from the Tree of Knowledge. He also notes that this transformation will occur after the Israelites return to Hashem, as indicated in verse 2, according to the Talmudic idiom (Shabbat 104a), “If one comes to become purified, then Heaven assists him.”

Although the above commentators agree that these verses refer to the messianic era, there is disagreement about the nature of the world at the time of the messiah. Maimonides acknowledges that human nature will change at the time of the messiah but does not specify the means of this change. It appears that he alludes to circumcision of the heart. He writes in the Laws of Kings 12:5, “In that era, there will be no famine, war, envy or competition. For good will flow in abundance and all the delights will be freely available as dust. The occupation of the entire world will be solely to know Hashem.” However the natural rules of science (e.g. chemistry, physics, medicine etc.) will apply as Maimonides writes (ibid. 12:1 based upon Berachot 34b), “Do not presume that in the Messianic age any facet of the world’s nature will change or there will be innovations in the work of creation. Rather, the world will continue according to its pattern.” The commentators on Maimonides attempt to reconcile these apparent contradictory statements (i.e. unchanged world nature vs. changed human nature). The Raavad (on Maimonides Fundamentals of Torah 8:2) explains that the change in human nature may occur after the resurrection of the dead. Before that time both human and world nature will be the same as today.

The following table summarizes the historical development of the evil inclinations and its eventual nullification.

Creation of manHashemEmbedded both inclinationsGenesis 2:7
After the sinAdamAte from forbidden fruitGenesis 3:6-7
Giving of the TorahHashemCircumcision of heartSong of Songs 1:2
MessiahHashemCircumcision of heartDeuteronomy 30:6

Names of the Evil Inclination

The Talmud Sukkah 52a provides different names of the evil inclination, one by Hashem and the other six by the prophets, which describe its impact on man. The following table lists these names in English and Hebrew, assigner of the name, and related verse from scripture.

EvilרעHashemGenesis 8:21
UncircumcisedערלMosesDeuteronomy 10:16
ImpureטמאDavidPsalms 51:12
EnemyשונאSolomonProverbs 25:21
Stumbling blockמכשולIsaiahIsaiah 57:14
StoneאבןEzekielEzekiel 36:26
Hidden oneצפוניJoelJoel 2:20

It is interesting to note that the words evil and uncircumcised share the same letters ר-ע indicating the intention of verse to “circumcise the heart” relates to removing the evil side of man. This inclination is called impure because it leads man away from the purity of Torah and is also man’s spiritual enemy constantly fighting against man’s spiritual nature. Isaiah calls it a stumbling block as an obstacle in the path of divine service. Ezekiel called it “stone” because of its stubbornness to accept rebuke and lethargic nature in the face of spirituality. Joel called it the hidden one because it lies within man’s mind and its actions are not always recognizable at first. However at the time of the messiah Hashem will remove its power over man.

Method of Removal

It is interesting to compare the various modes of expression used by the Talmud and Midrash to describe this “circumcision of the heart”. As a starting point, Midrash Lekach Tov, written in the 11th century by Rabbi Tobiah ben Eliezer, links the verse in Deuteronomy 30:6 to similar themed verses in Ezekiel 36:26-27, “(in the messianic era) I (Hashem) will give a new heart and a new spirit shall I put within you … I shall cause you to go by My (divine) decrees and guard My (divine) laws and perform them.” The Talmud Sukkah 52a and Exodus Rabbah 41:7, based on Ezekiel 36:26, describe this circumcision as:

  • Killing of the evil inclination (according to Maharsha (ibid.) a figure of speech indicating neutralizing of the inclination).
  • Exile of this inclination to a desolate land (Talmud).
  • Uprooting this inclination (Midrash).

Perhaps these different expressions refer to different times in the messianic era or the degree of circumcision of the heart depends upon the relative merit of the individuals who live at that time. 

Divine Perspective

The reader may ask, “If the evil inclination is so destructive why did Hashem create it in the first place?” Hashem had the following objectives:

  • Balance Creation
  • Improvement of the World
  • Man to Acquire Merit

Balance Creation

Hashem desired a being with dual inclinations because Hashem already had two creations of opposite tendencies as shown in the following table. The Midrash explains (Genesis Rabbah 8:11) that the spiritual nature includes the image and likeness of Hashem based upon Genesis 1:26. The physical nature includes procreation and earthly desires.

CreationSpiritual NaturePhysical Nature

In addition Genesis Rabbah 12:8 points out that the creation of man maintains a balance between heaven and earth as shown in the following table. This table shows the day of creation, connection with heaven or earth or both, and the related verse in Genesis Chapter 1.

Day of CreationHeavenEarthVerse

On the first day Hashem created the heavens and the earth. On the second day Hashem separated the waters in the heavens. On the next day Hashem withdrew the waters to expose the land and vegetation grew. On the next day Hashem set the sun, moon, and stars in the heavens. On the fifth day Hashem created the seas animals and fowl. On the sixth day Hashem created man.  In this manner there are 4 entries for heaven and 4 for the earth maintaining this balance.

Genesis Rabbah 9:12 points that the letters of the word “very (מאד)” in Genesis 1:31,” Hashem saw all that He had made and it very good”, are the same as the letters of man (אדם). This means that man is the only creation that can achieve beyond his natural level (מאד) and with divine assistance improve the world. By contrast animals are relegated to the physical domain and live off the earth as it is. Angels live in the spiritual domain and have little contact or interest in earthly affairs (Shabbat 88b-89a).

Improvement of the World

Hashem created the evil inclination for man to improve the world.  The Midrash (Genesis Rabbah 9:17) states that that without the evil inclination, a man would not build a house, get married, beget children, and conduct business. For without a completive instinct, man would be a lethargic creature as King Solomon noted (Ecclesiastes 4:4), “I saw that all labour and skillful enterprise arise from man’s rivalry with his neighbour.” It is Hashem’s will that mankind be productive as the verse states (Genesis 2:15), “Hashem placed man in the Garden of Eden to work it and guard it.” Avot of Rabbi Nathan (11:1) comments on this verse by quoting Rabbi Shimon the son of Elazar, “(Great is work), even Adam did not eat (from the garden) until he performed some work.” Rabbi Tarfon (ibid.) adds that idleness can lead to a premature death. The secular world realizes that in retirement a person must keep busy. From a Torah perspective one must also be occupied with studying Torah and keeping the mitzvoth.        

The Midrash (ibid.) comments on Genesis 1:31, “Hashem saw all that he had made and behold it was very good (מאד טוב והנה)”, by stating that very good refers to the good inclination and the word “and” refers to the evil inclination. It is interesting to note that Ecclesiastes Rabbah 3:15 which expounds on Ecclesiastes 3:11, “Hashem made everything beautiful in its time”, similarly derives the benefit of the evil inclination from Genesis 1:31 as follows, “Behold it was very good”, with “good” referring to the good inclination and “very” referring to the evil inclination. This Midrash uses the word “very” to directly refer to the evil inclination. By contrast the previous Midrash derives this inclination indirectly from the word “and”.  Perhaps the latter Midrash uses a direct derivation to reflect the dour message of Ecclesiastes in that many of man’s effort are futile if driven by the evil inclination only, especially after Adam ate from the Tree of Knowledge. By contrast the narrative in Genesis refers to the dormant evil inclination as implanted by Hashem before eating from the Tree of Knowledge.

Acquire Merit

Hashem also created the evil inclination for man to acquire merit in this world and for the world to come.

In This World

The struggle against the evil inclination is a lifelong battle but so is the achievement, as Ben Hei Hei says (Avot 5:26 in prayer book and 5:23 in printed Mishna), “According to the exertion is the reward.” In fact, Rabbi Yehudah the Prince ends the tractate of Avot on this note, recognizing the difficulty of serving Hashem properly and realizing the great merit in this struggle. Furthermore Hashem desires a dwelling place on this earth in addition to his dwelling in heaven which is achieved by the Israelites following the Torah and its commandments (Midrash Tanchuma Bechukotai 3).

By contrast at the time of the messiah man will naturally follow Hashem and then reward will be much less as the Talmud says (Shabbat 151b), commenting on Ecclesiastes 12:1, “These are the days of Messiah, in which there is neither merit nor liability (because Hashem has circumcised the heart).” 

World to Come

Man must also acquire merit to enter the world to come. Rabbi Jacob says (Avot 4:21 in the prayer book and 4:16 in the printed Mishna), “This world is like a lobby before the World to Come; prepare yourself in the lobby so that you may enter the banquet hall (i.e. world to come).” Rabbi Jacob further says (ibid. 4:22 and 4:17, respectively), “Better is one hour of returning to Hashem and good deeds in this world than the entire life of the world to come”, because one acquires merit in this world through action which is not possible in the world to come. 

Hints and allusions – רמז

Two Verses

The two verses (i.e. Deuteronomy 10:16 and 30:6) may be compared and contrasted by analyzing their respective structures to obtain the following table:

TechniqueVerse 10:16Verse 30:6Meaning
Opening and closing letterד ו (6 + 4 =10) ך ו (6 + 20 =26)Hashem
Number of words in verse818Life
Number of letters in verse31 (לא)67 (אלול)Direction

Opening and closing letters

In both verses, the opening and closing letters refer to Hashem. In the former verse the number 10 refers to the Torah through the Ten Commandments (ibid. 4:13 and 10:4). In the latter verse, the number 26 refers directly to Hashem through his name, the Tetragrammaton   ה-ו-ה-י. Hence the latter verse indicates the divine energy though His circumcising of the hearts of the Israelites in the messianic era. The former verse refers to man’s circumcising of his heart through the direction of the Torah.

Number of words in each verse

The number of words in these verses indicates the direction of life in their respective eras, current and messianic. The number 8 indicates a successful struggle with the evil inclination in the current world by going beyond the natural order of the physical world which is represented by the number 7, as in the 7 day of creation (Maharal). The number 18 refers to life (חי) and indicates a long or (according to some opinions) eternal life in the messianic era.

Number of letters in each verse

The number of letters in the verses (31 and 67 respectively) refers to the different direction of life in the respective eras (i.e. current and messianic). The number 31 emphasizes the need to avoid transgressing the prohibitions of the Torah as the verse says, “Do not (לא) stiffen your neck. By contrast the latter verse (67 letters) emphasizes returning to Hashem, indicated by the word (אלול – 67) which is the name of the month before Rosh Hashanah. In addition the first letters of the phrase in this latter verse, “your heart and the heart of” in Hebrew “לבב ואת לבבך את” also spell the word אלול.

Different Circumcisions

Genesis Rabbah 46:5 offers an additional perspective on “circumcision of the heart” through examples of blockage (ערל) on different parts of the human body as shown in the following table:  

Part of BodyVerseHebrew Phrase
Male OrganGenesis 17:14זכר וערל
Lips (in reference to Moses)Exodus 6:12שפתים ערל
EarJeremiah 6:10אזנם ערלה
HeartJeremiah 9:25לב ערלי

The Midrash teaches us that we must guard our lust (reproductive organ), lips (speech), ear (hearing), and heart (thoughts) from the evil inclination which blocks our path to Hashem.

Gematria of 300

It is interesting to note that the following words share the same gematria of 300 and provide a narrative of the destructive power of the evil inclination throughout history. The table lists these words in Hebrew and English with a relevant verse in scripture.

Word (Hebrew)Word (English)Verse
יצרFormedGenesis 2:8
יצרInclination (Evil)Genesis 6:5
ערלUncircumcisedExodus 12:48
לרעTo evilProverbs 1:16
כפרPaymentNumbers 35:31-32
כפרAtoneDeuteronomy 21:8

The word יצר has a dual meaning “formed” or “inclination” and the table shows both forms. At first Hashem formed (יצר) man with both inclinations (Genesis 2:7-8). After eating from the Tree of Knowledge the evil inclination (יצר) prevailed and man was involved with sin all the time (ibid. 6:5). After the flood Hashem restarted mankind with Noah and his family. However they failed to live up to Hashem’s expectations for 10 generations until Abraham appeared and received the reward of them all (Avot 5:3 in prayer book and 5:2 in printed Mishna). Hashem gave Abraham the mitzvah of circumcision to remove the spiritual blockage of the male organ. The Torah uses the root word ערל, in different forms in chapter 17 of Genesis (e.g. 17:14 – וערל and ערלתו). As a sign of this blockage, the Torah does not permit an uncircumcised, male Israelite (ערל) to eat from the Passover offering (Exodus 12:48).   

The evil inclination is a powerful force, as King Solomon advises (Proverbs 1:15-16), “My son, do not go on the way with them; restrain your foot from their path. For their feet run to evil (לרע), and they hasten to shed blood.” In reference to the crime of murder the Torah provides two keywords (כפר), meaning ransom and atonement, both with a gematria of 300 as shown in the above table. The Torah mandates either exile to the cities of refuge for an accidental murderer and capital punishment for an intentional murderer. (The Sanhedrin rarely applied capital punishment because of the many safeguards in the judicial process, namely due warning to the offender, two witnesses who actually saw the crime, clear indication that the crime was committed with malicious intent and not accidental or in self-defense.) In both of these cases a monetary payment (כפר) will not exempt the offender from the Torah mandated punishment as the verse says (Numbers 35:31-32),”Do not accept payment (כפר) for a murderer who is worthy of death. Do not accept payment (כפר) to exempt one who must flee to a city of refuge.” However when the murderer is unknown the Torah mandates a procedure to decapitate a calf in an uninhabited area (Deuteronomy 21:1-8) to attain atonement for the community as the verse says (ibid. 8), “Atone (כפר) for your people that You (divine) have redeemed.” However when the murderer is found, the above mandated procedures apply.  

Although actual murder is an extreme example of the destructive power of the evil inclination, lesser forms of “murder” are more prevalent in our society especially through social media (e.g. slander, character assassination, incitement to violence). In fact the Talmud (Arachin 15b) considers evil speech (הרע לשון) as a form of murder in a moral sense.          

Secrets of Torah – סוד

The Zohar (2:163a) understands the evil inclination as a force with divine sanction (i.e. permission) to lead mankind astray. However Hashem also created the good inclination to overcome the evil inclination and for mankind to acquire merit in this world and the world to come as explained in the above selections from the Midrash. The Zohar (ibid.) provides a striking parable about the evil inclination and its wiles. A king wanted to test his beloved son to determine if he would rule the kingdom with prudence and not misspend his youth on women. The king hired an attractive woman to seduce his son with her beauty, character, and romantic gestures. If the son could resist her advances then the king would realize that his son is fit to rule. This parable reflects the challenges of life with the roles of the king, the son, and woman representing Hashem mankind, and the evil inclination respectively. It is interesting to note that the gematria of 300 lead to a number of words that represent the evil inclination and its aftermath. However the same gematria of 300 also represents the divine energy to match this inclination because the Tetragrammaton in the Atbash system transforms ה-ו-ה-י to ץ-פ-צ-מ which has a gematria of 300.   

The Zohar (1:113a-114b) also discusses the circumcision of the heart at the messianic era and concludes that:

  • This circumcision will occur at the resurrection of the dead (ibid. 1:113b-114a) based upon Daniel 12:2-3,” Many who sleep in the dust of the earth will awaken for eternal life … The wise will shine like the brightness of the sky, and those who bring the multitudes to righteousness like the stars forever and ever.” In addition the Zohar understands that those whose are resurrected will then live forever (similar to Targum of Yonatan ben Uziel on Deuteronomy 30:6).
  • The “evil inclination” will, in the future, be neutralized but not totally eliminated. Rather a trace will remain to encourage marriage and procreation in the messianic era. However the desire will not be as intense and persistent as at present and therefore will not lead people astray. Hence marriage at that time will follow the path of true love as opposed to a combination of love and lust at present (ibid. 1:138a).    


This article discussed the evil inclination through man’s development from creation until the messianic era. Originally Hashem created the evil inclination for mankind to acquire merit. However after Adam and Eve ate from the Tree of Knowledge the evil inclination became a formidable force. Since Adam and Eve empowered the evil inclination by disobeying Hashem’s command it behooves man to return to Hashem to correct this situation. In fact the quicker this return to Hashem, the quicker will be the messianic redemption.  As the Talmud (Sanhedrin 98a) states, “If the Israelites are worthy then the redemptions comes early, if not then it its time. At the messianic era, after the world will return to Hashem, Hashem will neutralize this inclination (i.e. circumcise the heart) and “The land shall be full of knowledge of Hashem as water covers the sea bed” (Isaiah 11:9).  

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