Priestly Blessing


Numbers 6:24-26 contains the blessing said by the Kohanim (priests) in the temple and now in our synagogues. In Israel most Kohanim recite the blessing daily, while outside of Israel Ashkenazim only on holidays and Sephardim daily. The reason for these customs will be explained in the Halacha section at the end of this article. The blessing encompasses the following themes:

Verse Chapter 6Theme (Blessing)Number of WordsNumber of Letters
24Material (Prosperity)3 (Patriarchs)15
25Spiritual Torah5 (Books of Torah)20
26Peace7 (Heavens)25

The written Torah conveys the blessings in a few words leaving the reader with many questions. However the oral Torah, especially Midrash Rabbah – Numbers Chapter 11, provides numerous insights to these blessings leading to a deeper understanding of life, materially and spiritually.


Context in Torah

The Torah does not explicitly mention the context of the priestly blessing. However one can elucidate the context by examining the preceding and following verses using the principle of סמוכים (juxtaposition). One would expect to find the text of the blessing in Leviticus where the laws of the priests are detailed. In fact Leviticus 9:22 is the first verse which mentions the priestly blessing but not the actual text of the blessing. Aaron blesses the people after offering the inauguration sacrifices in the tabernacle. Numbers Rabbah 11:1 establishes the context by noting that the laws of the nazirite (Numbers 6:1-21) directly precede the priestly blessing. Although the priestly blessing relates to all Jews the Torah emphasizes that the threefold blessing of prosperity, Torah, and inner peace particularly apply to one who sincerely strives for holiness. Following the priestly blessing, the Torah (Numbers 7:1-89) describes the inauguration offering of the twelve princes, linking to the first mention of the blessing in Leviticus 9:22. This implies that the blessing similarly applies to one who dedicates his life to divine service.   

The Talmud Taanit 26b explains the connection of the laws of the nazirite to the priestly blessing in a legal sense. Just as a nazirite is prohibited from drinking wine during his vow, similarly a Kohen is not allowed to drink wine before saying the the blessing. Unlike the nazirite a Kohen may drink wine after the blessing. 

Context in Halachah – Time and Place

In addition the Torah does not explicitly specify the time and place for this blessing.


Deuteronomy 18:5, states that Aaron and his sons should serve Hashem all their days (כל הימים). However this verse does not specifically mention the priestly blessing, only service in the temple. Deuteronomy 10:8 states that the Levites carry the ark but the Kohanim serve in the temple and bless the people. (In actuality the verse implies that the Levites bless the people. However we know from many verses (e.g. Numbers 3:10 and 18:7) that only a Kohen may serve in the temple.) The Talmud Sotah 38a uses the principle of היקש (comparison of phrases or verses) to compare the blessing to service. Just as the service is daily so is the blessing.


The Kohanim may bless the Israelites in the temple or synagogue. Talmud Sotah 37b and 38a outlines the differences between the locations as follows:

Name of Hashemי-ה-ו-הא-ד-נ-י
Hands Raised – AboveHeadShoulders
Congregation Responseברוך ה אלקי ישראל (once)אמן ( 3 times)
ServiceAfter morning offeringIn amidah

Even though Hashem is everywhere, his holiness is felt differently by humans depending upon location and their connection to Hashem. In the temple, the Kohanim bless the Israelites with the divine name as it is written. By contrast in the synagogue where holiness is not felt as intensely we substitute the divine name with a word signifying Lord. In the temple the Kohanim raise their hands above their head when reciting the priestly blessing because the shechinah rests above their heads (Numbers Rabbah 11:2), signifying a complete enveloping by the divine presence, body and mind. By contrast in the synagogue the hands are raised only above the shoulders. In both cases the shechinah peers through the lattice composed of outstretched fingers of the Kohanim (Song of Songs 2:9). Similarly with increased holiness the congregation in the temple responds with a larger refrain than Amen after completing the three verses of the blessing. This refrain, drawn from Psalms 106:48, blesses Hashem forever מן העולם ועד העולם. In the synagogue the congregation responds with the conventional Amen after each verse. In the temple the Kohanim bless the people after offering the daily morning sacrifice, implying that we first acknowledge Hashem and then deal with the people. In addition the holiness of the sacrificial service carries on to the priestly blessing. In the synagogue the priestly blessing is recited in the repetition of the amidah in the following manner:

Temple Service   רצהKohanim leave their placeLink to temple service
Thanksgiving  מודיםPreliminary prayer by KohanimAcknowledge Hashem
Priestly blessingStand alone blessing
Peace  שלוםPrayer for Hashem to bless the peopleLink blessing to amidah

It is interesting to note that while the priestly blessing is a biblical command, the form of the amidah is a rabbinical directive. Nevertheless the rabbis sought to integrate the priestly blessing into the amidah following the guidelines of the temple procedure to maintain a connection with the temple service. Therefore the rabbis required the Kohanim to move from their place during the רצה blessing and reach the steps leading to the ark by the end of the מודים blessing. Towards the end of the מודים blessing the Kohanim pray that their priestly blessing should not suffer from a stumbling or sin (Sotah 39a), consistent with the מודים blessing which acknowledges that our souls are in Hashem’s hands. After the מודים blessing the Kohanim bless the people. In this manner the priestly blessing is not directly connected to an amidah blessing. The Rabbi sought to directly connect the priestly blessing with the amidah blessing of peace because the last word of the priestly blessing is שלום. In addition, the Kohanim ask Hashem to bless the people invoking Deuteronomy 26:15 (ibid.) as the cantor recites the blessing of peace. In this manner the amidah concludes with a message of peace and unison connecting Hashem to the Kohanim, and Israelites.


Numbers Rabbah 11:2 describes the pattern of Hashem’s blessings in an historical manner as follows:

HashemAdam and Eve – mankindGenesis 1:28
HashemNoah and sons – mankindGenesis 9:1
AbrahamAbraham’s choiceGenesis 12:2
IsaacJacobGenesis 26:28-29
JacobTwelve TribesGenesis 49:28
KohanimIsraelitesNumbers 6:22-27

Originally Hashem blessed mankind but did not find anyone worthy to confer blessings until Abraham (Avot 5:3). The patriarchs Isaac and Jacob blessed their children. The midrash points out that Abraham, to avoid friction, did not bless Isaac because he did not want to bless Ishmael whom he considered unworthy. After the giving of the Torah, Hashem formalized the blessing process through the Kohanim. Of course any individual may confer a blessing, (e.g. father blessing his children on Shabbat). However the Torah placed the obligation on the Kohanim to bless the Israelites on a daily basis with a fixed text.


Gematria provides an additional perspective on the priestly blessing. Numbers 6:23 contains key words, כה (thus) and אמור (say). The former word occurs many times in the bible, in the form כה אמר ה (thus says Hashem), often used by the prophets. In this sense the Kohanim are following in the role of the prophets to guide and bless the Israelites with Hashem ratifying the blessing (Numbers 6:27). Therefore by adding the divine presence (1) to 25 of כה results in 26 the gematria of the divine name, indicating the divine energy of the blessing when the Kohanim and Hashem are in unison.

The word אמור appears only once in the Torah. (By contrast, the root אמר appears many times in the Torah in different forms and conjugations.) Similarly by adding the divine presence (1) to אמור (247) resulting in 248 corresponding to the number of sections of the human body, indicating that the priestly blessing should encompass and penetrate the Israelites. In addition the word אמור is spelled in full with a ו to indicate that the Kohanim should bless the Israelites with a full heart (Numbers Rabbah 11:4).


As mentioned above, the priestly blessing encompasses material, spiritual, and true peace.

Material Blessing

Verse 24 states that Hashem should bless and protect you but the verse details neither the blessing nor the protection.


Numbers Rabbah (11:5) describes this blessing in terms of other verses which mention Hashem’s blessing to the Israelites with the same root ברך as follows:

  1. Deuteronomy 7:14 ברוך תהיה מכל העמים (You will be the most blessed of all peoples with no infertility in among you or your animals). Verse 7:13 promises blessings of fruit of the womb, land, and flocks of sheep and cattle if the Israelites observe the Torah. Verse 7:15 promises freedom from sickness (very appropriate blessing for our time).
  2. Deuteronomy 28:3-6 contains six statements of blessings (ברוך), namely in the city, in the field, fruit of your womb and ground, fruit of your animals, fruit basket, and kneading bowl, coming in, and going out.

In summary the blessing encompass the full range of material prosperity, which although not the ultimate purpose of life, enables the Israelites to study Torah and observer the mitzvoth while earning a living with relative ease. (It is interesting to note that these are the only verses in the Torah where Hashem bless Israel with the word ברוך. The technique of comparing verses with similar roots and contexts allows the student of Torah to find additional meanings to the Torah, especially when examples are provided by the Midrash.)


Numbers Rabbah 11:5 provide many examples of Hashem’s protection from the dangers of excessive materialism. Some of these are listed below:

  1. Robbers.
  2. Government confiscation.
  3. War (especially Esau and Ishmael).
  4. Disease.
  5.  Arrogance (Deuteronomy 8:14 and 17).
  6. Selfishness (Be charitable).
  7. Over indulgence (Substance abuse).
  8. Death (easy passage to world to come).
  9. Purgatory (minimize punishment).

In summary the midrash lists protection from external sources (points 1-4), internal sources (points 5-7), and at time of death (8-9). 

Similar to the above paragraph the midrash finds verses referring to Hashem’s protection using the same root שמר to protect.

  1. Deuteronomy 7:12 ושמר ה את הברית ואת החסד (Hashem will safeguard for you the covenant and kindness).
  2. Psalms 121:3-8 (each of the six verses contains the root שמר to protect, especially verse 7, ה ישמרך מכל רע Hashem will protect you from all misfortune.)

(It is interesting to note that form ישמרך occurs only once in Tanach (Psalms 121:7) and the exact form in the priestly blessing וישמרך (Numbers 6:24) also occurs only once in Tanach, implying that the protection is all encompassing.)

The Baal Haturim, a noted medieval commentary, notes that the structure of the first blessing illustrates the divine energy in the blessing יברכך י -ה -ו -ה וישמרך. The opening letters of the three words י י ו have a numerical value of 26 corresponding to the numerical value of the divine name of four letters. In addition the end letters ך ה ך have a numerical value of 45 (20+6+13+6) corresponding to the numerical value of the divine name in the malei system as follows:

Letter      Malei מלאGematria

The blessing of 3 words corresponds to the patriarchs, Abraham (Genesis 24:1), Isaac (genesis 26:3), and Jacob (28:14-15) who were blessed and protected by Hashem.     

Hebrew Language

Since biblical Hebrew is a language of divine communication one can find additional meaning to words as follows:

  1. Same letters but different meanings in the bible or oral law.
  2. Different meanings by permuting letters, based on the three letter root. 

Same Letters

For example, the root ברך (blessing) also has the meaning בריכה (pond). Numbers Rabbah 11:2 notes that just as a pond can serve as a mikvah and purify someone, so too a righteous person, for example Abraham, can purify people bringing them “under the wings of the shechinah”. In this manner a righteous person is blessed because he brings spiritual blessings to others. The same root ברך is used to form the verb הבריך which means to bend a branch into the ground (to root) to produce a new growth. In time the embedded root grows and develops branches. Then the farmer severs the root from the host tree to allow the new branches to grow on their own (Mishnah Orlah 1:5). In a similar vein the Kohanim serve as the host tree and through their blessings enable the Israelites to grow and flourish in their endeavours.

Different Letters

The three letters of ברך may be rearranged to form 5 other combinations. We will choose those words that occur in the bible and have relevance to the priestly blessing as follows:

Verb or NounMeaningVerseContext
בכרFirst bornGenesis 46:8, Exodus 4:22Greatness
כרבCherub (angel)Exodus 25:19Holiness
רכבRiding (chariot)Deuteronomy 33:26Connection to Hashem

The word בכר literally means first born as it occurs many times in the bible (e.g. Genesis 46:8). However this word may also mean a choice or great one as in Exodus 4:22 where Hashem called the Israelites his first born son. In this sense the priestly blessing is amply suited for the Israelites. The word כרב refers to an angel, literally cherub. These angelic figures covered the Ark of the Covenant with their outstretched wings symbolically linking the Torah to the heavens (Exodus 25:18-22). This symbol aptly represents study of the torah and divine revelation which links to the next verse of the priestly blessing. The word רכב can mean to ride or a chariot (Exodus 15:1 and 4). When applied figuratively to G-d, the verb implies both Hashem’s mastery over and connection to this world in reference to material blessing. The root רכב is used to form the verb הרכיב to graft fruit trees, meaning to insert a branch of one tree to a host tree to produce better fruit. By analogy the blessing connects Hashem to his people producing “new fruit”.

Spiritual Blessing

Verse 25 states that Hashem shine (or light) his face upon you and be gracious to you but the verse details neither the shining nor the grace.

Divine Light

For additional clarity, Numbers Rabbah (11:6) describes this blessing in terms of other verses which mention Hashem’s light (or shechinah) using the same root אור as follows:

  1. Psalms 36:10 באורך נראה אור (Through your light we will see the light of divine inspiration).
  2. Proverbs 6:23 כי נר מצוה ותורה אור (A mitzvah is like a candle but the study of Torah is permanent light). The same midrash applies this verse and Numbers 6:25 to understanding the depths of Torah and the gift of sons as Torah scholars.
  3. Isaiah 60:1 קומי אורי כי בא אורך (Arise! Shine! For your light has arrived and the glory of Hashem has shined upon you). Jerusalem will shine at the time of redemption through divine glory with the verse using light as a symbol of rejoicing and goodness. At present we can only capture a glimpse of this glory. Although some of the world will be in darkness (ibid. 2) the nations will walk in your light (ibid. 3).
  4. Psalms 118:27 א-ל ה ויאר לנו Hashem has illuminated for us (Verse from Hallel) (Talmud Pesachim 119a refers this verse to the selection of David as king, indicating divine guidance to the Israelites).
  5. Leviticus 6:5 והאש על המזבח (The fire on the altar… should not extinguish). The above midrash refers this verse to the Kohanim who serve in the temple and light the altar, alluding to the divine presence in the temple.

The Baal Haturim points out that the gematria of את האור (Genesis 1:4), divine light at creation, equals 613 the number of commandments in the Torah. This gematria implies that study and observance of the Torah are connected to divine light.  Therefore the common theme of this midrash is through the Torah the Israelites will merit many gifts, including the rebuilding of Jerusalem, restoration of the monarchy, and reinstitution of offerings in the temple.  Although not mentioned in the midrash, the author would like to add Isaiah 42:6, 49:6 “Israel to be a light to nations לאור גוים “.

Divine Grace

Although study and observance of Torah are essential to Jewish life, Talmud Yoma 9b warns that this is not sufficient without divine grace ויחנך. The second temple was destroyed by gratuitous hatred שנאת חנם even though the Israelites studied Torah, observed commandments, and performed acts of kindness. In effect divine grace through deep understanding of the Torah should lead to better relations between people, initially between Jews and then to better relations with non Jews during the long exile, eventually leading to the messianic era as detailed by this midrash as follows:

  1. Divine gift of understanding and knowledge alluding to the fourth blessing of the amidah (אתה חונן לאדם דעת). Hashem will grant you the gift of prophecy (Zechariah 10:12. Grant us secrets from your Torah (Targum Yonatan ben Uziel on Numbers 6:25).
  2. This understanding and knowledge should lead to gracious and well behaved children. (Genesis 43:29).
  3. Proper conduct between people (אדם לחבירו).
  4. Divine grace amongst non-Jews (e.g. Joseph – Genesis 39: 21 Queen Esther- Esther 2:15).
  5. Save us from persecution in the exile (Psalms 123:3 -חננו ה חננו).
  6. Redeem us from exile with grace.

The midrash (ibid.) elaborates on the root חנן as follows:

  • Divine blessings that exceed our merits (Psalms 67:2). This verse is particularly applicable to the priestly blessing because it contains verbs יחננו (grace), ויברכנו (bless), and יאר (light) that feature prominently in this blessing. (At a literal level chapter 67 refers to the ultimate redemption.)
  • In some cases divine blessing without merits. In this case the midrash compares the three letter root חנן (grace) to חנם (nothing). (The torah may be expounded by comparing three letter roots that share two of the three letters).
  • Hashem should dwell with you. In this case the midrash compares the three letter root חנן (grace) to חנה (dwell).

It is interesting to note that in addition to the fourth blessing of the amidah, the root חנן also appears in the blessings of divine forgiveness סלח לנו and divine acceptance of prayer שמע קולנו, indicating the degree of divine grace.


After material and spiritual blessings the priestly blessing concludes with peace שלום. The midrash (11:7) points out that peace is a fitting end to this blessing just as the amidah ends in שלום (המברך את עמו ישראל בשלום). The midrash continues by stating that great is peace because all depends upon it and there is no true blessing without peace. Disputes may arise but will be resolved through the ways of Torah, because bona fide Torah scholars increase peace in the world (Berahot 64a). They show their disputant, whether a layman or fellow scholar,  the Torah way thereby seeking the truth, fulfilling the will of Hashem, and overlooking personal concerns. 


The midrash (ibid.) identifies peace at a national level, in the temporal realm (kings come and go), and in the spiritual world through the study, interpretation, and application of Torah As follows:

  1. Political – Kingdom of David ולשלום אין קץ (Peace without end) Isaiah 9:6.
  2. Spiritual – Torah ה יברך את עמו בשלום (Hashem will bless his nation with peace) Psalms 29:11) (The earlier part of the verse refers to עז strength which means Torah.)
  3. Divine – Hashem is also called שלום (Judges 6:23) meaning that true peace must be focused on the divine, the source of peace.


On a personal level all Jews and especially Kohanim (who must bless Israelites with love) should follow the example of Aaron, namely, “Love peace, pursue peace, love people, and bring them to Torah (Avot 1:12). In this vein this mishnah implies that peace is not merely an absence of dispute but rather a mindset seeking peace and guiding others to a meaningful Torah life. Avot de Rabbi Natan (12:3) relates how Aaron made peace between disputants by separately saying to each party that his disputant regretted his actions and wanted to reconcile but was too embarrassed to proceed. In addition Aaron would befriend a sinner and appear oblivious to the individual’s failings. The sinner, thinking that Aaron did not know his actions, would feel embarrassed and improve his ways. Aaron also resolved marital strife and as a result the reconciled couple would name their future children Aaron in recognition of his valued endeavours.  Malachi 2:6 summarizes the role of a Kohein, “The teaching of truth was in his mouth … he walked with me in peace בשלום and fairness and turned many away from sin”. It is interesting to note that all Kohanim directly descend from Aaron and are thereby empowered to continue his legacy and bless Israelites with peace.  

Lift Countenance

Verse 26 states that Hashem shall lift his countenance ישא ה פניו and establish peace but the verse does not explain the meaning of this lifting. Numbers Rabbah 11:7 interprets the word ישא by comparing the same verb in other verses to obtain a match in both verb and context as follows:

  1. Forgiveness – Genesis 40:13 ישא פרעה את ראשך, where Pharaoh will forgive the butler as interpreted by Joseph of the butler’s dream.
  2. Acceptance of our prayers (even when unworthy) – Genesis 19:21 where Hashem answers Lot’s prayer by sparing the city of Zoar when fleeing Sodom.  

Both the Talmud and this midrash (ibid.) question the extent of forgiveness especially in face of Deuteronomy 10:17 which states that Hashem will not forgive (so easily) לא ישא פנים. They offer the following resolutions, forgiveness applies:

  1. With meaningful repentance תשובה commensurate with the offence.
  2. By fulfilling the will of the creator through studying Torah and observing mitzvoth, thereby mitigating punishment.
  3. Going beyond the letter of the law following the principle of measure for measure. If we go beyond the letter of the law then Hashem reciprocates by going beyond the letter of the law and forgives our occasional failures. For example reciting grace after a small meal in a time of famine when the family is not actually satiated but nevertheless thanks Hashem for what they ate (Berachot 20b).
  4. Before the sealing of a divine decree. After the sealing extraordinary repentance may be required to overturn the decree (Nidah 70b).
  5. For a sin between man and Hashem. However for a sin between man and man the sinner must seek forgiveness from the wronged party (Rosh Hashanah 17b).

Hebrew Language

Since biblical Hebrew is a language of divine communication one can find additional meaning by using the same letters or permuting these letters.

For example, the root שלם indicates peace as in Leviticus 3:1-16 the peace offering. This offering is primarily consumed by the owner and his guests, the breast and thing are given to the Kohanim, the fats and bloods are offered on the altar. In this manner peace is increased because all here parties are connected to the offering. This root also implies completeness as in Genesis 33:18 ויבא יעקב שלם (Jacob arrived in peace or completeness). The Talmud comments on this phrase Jacob was complete (intact) in terms of his health, wealth, and Torah knowledge (Shabbat33a). This root also implies completeness of a major task as in the building of the first temple ותשלם כל המלאכה (Kings 1 7:51). In addition this root indicates payment, especially after damage (Exodus 22:3, 5, and 13). In this manner peace is achieved through compensation, allaying the ill feelings of the damaged party.

 The letters of שלם may be permuted to from the root משל (to rule) which indicates true peace with the proper leadership. In fact the prophet Zachariah predicts in verse 9:10 that the messiah will speak in peace to the nations ודבר שלום לגוים and rule from sea to sea ומשלו מים עד ים.


Although there are many words that share the gematria of שלום (376), one striking example is עשו, the archenemy of the Jewish people. (Some of עשו will change their policies at the time of the messiah but the proportion is a matter of dispute (Avodah Zarah10b). The link between these two words implies that world peace cannot be achieved without the subjugation or reorientation of עשו. (In the opinion of the author this link may explain an unusual halachah concerning the priestly blessing.)


The Rama in Orach Chaim (128:44) states, following the custom in Europe, that the Kohanim bless the Israelites only on Yom Tov. By contrast the custom in Sephardic countries the Kohanim bless the Israelites every day. (In Israel most Ashkenazi Jews follow the Sephardic custom.) The European custom is difficult to explain for the following reasons:

  1. The biblical obligation applies every day.
  2. The reason of the Rema is that the Jews are preoccupied by their livelihood and are not in a state of joy except on yom tov.

The later codifiers are troubled by both of these factors. How can a biblical obligation be set aside because of a lack of joy? On the contrary we should serve Hashem with joy every day (Psalms 100:2). In addition the priestly blessing confers material wealth. Even more perplexing, why do Sephardic Jews posses joy and not Ashkenazim?

In the author’s opinion the mystery may be solved by linking שלום to עשו. Perhaps the Ashkenazi rabbis felt that the power of עשו (especially the Catholic Church) was so great that they were not at peace and not up to the priestly blessing.  They realized that Isaac had blessed Esau with prosperity and dominion when the Israelites do not meet Hashem’s expectations (Genesis 27:40). After witnessing the tragedies of the crusades and later persecutions they may have felt that Isaac’s blessings to Esau could, to some extent, undermine the priestly blessings. It is interesting to note that this practice is not recorded in the Tur Shulchan Aruch but was accepted by the 16th century. By contrast Sephardic Jews under the influence of Ishmael felt more at peace because their adversary was not as formidable because Hashem’s blessing to Ishmael does not directly imply dominion over the Israelites. In Israel, Ishmael ruled for many centuries with Esau ruling for a limited time during the crusades. Since the influence of Esau was not that great in Israel, Kohanim in Israel bless every day.


The priestly blessing encompasses prosperity, Torah knowledge, and world peace. This ideal applies throughout time and will be achieved in the messianic era. At present the blessing serves as a daily encouragement and reminder to strive for this ideal.

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